During the Civil War, both the garment and the steel industries in Cleveland expanded under wartime demands. By the 1880s, the city's population exploded as the opportunities for work in all the expanding industries in Cleveland. The city, which had been settled by descendants of British and Scotch immigrants grew with German and Irish immigration in the 1830s and 40s. During and after the Civil War, the city's ethnic, racial and religious profile expanded, with influxes of immigrants from the whole of Europe as well as the Great Migration of ex-slaves from the south. This volume ends in the 1950s, when the first American Indians since the 1840s were brought back to the city under the program of Relocation.